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Nations within a Nation – The Search for a Pakistani Nation – 2

 By Adnan Syed

“Indeed, world is ruled by little else but ideas.” — John Maynard Keynes

The Two Nation Theory and Inequality in the New State of Pakistan

The two nation theory was primarily based on distinctive majority-two-nations within United India. The distinction was cultural as well as religious, where both of these characteristics freely overlapped each other. Given the dominance of religion within the edifice of the Muslim nation, it was inevitable that religion will form a large part in the new nation state that was carved due to the Muslim nation identity. And given a strong tradition of political Islam within the Muslim body, it was inevitable that the very political Islam will find its way through the vague contours of the shifting idea of an Indian Muslim nation that was formed mainly as a reaction to the changing landscape of nineteenth and twentieth century India.

Since Pakistan was a political unit demanded by the sudden rise in Indian Muslim nationalism in a span of 7 years, it remained a reactive idea. It was an alternative to recognition of the Muslim nation; and when that recognition was denied, Pakistan was born. And this is where the reactive nature of the idea became its own worst enemy. Since events transpired so quickly in those momentous seven years from 1940 to 1947, Muslim League remained focused on their immediate goal of winning recognition of a Muslim nation within United India, it likely never completely delved into the details of governing the new Muslim state.


When the new nation is formed around an ideal of cultural and religious identity, ML leadership found it hard for the new state to not turn and impose the very religious inspired identity upon all who live inside the boundaries of the newly formed nation. The very violation (or the perception of violation) of equality is what gave rise to the newly formed nation state of Pakistan. What Pakistani founders failed to realize was that if the new found state is to repeat the same mistake, its sub nations will feel immediately threatened, in a way similar to how Muslims felt due to perceived Hindu dominated India. As it happened, new nations within Pakistan did quickly rise to protect their interests and ideals.

Suddenly it becomes clear what Jinnah was thinking on August 11, when he all but proclaimed Pakistan as a secular state. He probably had a good idea of what would entail if Pakistan would opt for the route of an Islamic state. He knew firsthand the ferocity of nationalism when recognition is denied and core ideals of nations within a nation are threatened. And he knew well that nationalism based on other identities can be extremely potent and infectious. Proclaiming Pakistan as a secular state did not negate the idea of Pakistan. It was a perfectly sound continuation of an idea of Pakistan that was rooted in perceived inequality. That Pakistan was never a certain outcome was certain. But once Pakistan became a reality, it was imperative that it did not follow the very mistake that became its reason of existence.

Alas, the founding fathers of Pakistan never followed through on Jinnah’s speech of August 11. They either failed to see that precluding all Pakistanis from equality irrespective of their faith and caste will give rise to further nationalism within the new state of Pakistan. Or maybe they naively believed that Islam would allow complete equality to Muslims and non Muslims.

Jinnah was the visible exception as we hear him say again and again that the new nation was not going to be a theocratic state. He clearly said that religion would have nothing to do with the affairs of the state. But we also hear him invoking Islam during the movement for Pakistan. Jinnah used Islam to unite the Muslim polity. This was an expensive bargain; to invoke Muslims as a nation, he had to call on for Islamic principles that Muslims can relate to. Otherwise, the free-flowing multi-dimensional identities of Indian Muslims (cultural, lingual, regional) would overwhelm their collective Indian Muslim identity. He valiantly tried to keep the Muslim nationalism separate from Islamic theocracy. But he probably did not realize that invoking religious bedrock for a nation was that huge of a bargain. To complicate the matters, right after partition, all religious parties jumped into the cracks between Muslim and Islamic nationalism, stoking the uncertainty even further, and highlighting the Islamic angle of the movement at the cost of Muslim nationalism movement.

If Jinnah occasionally wavered in resolving the contradictions between the demands of Muslims and inequality inside a theocratic state, his comrades completely dropped the ball after his death. Within 6 months of his death, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was passing a resolution assigning sovereignty to Allah and holding Islamic laws as a guideline for the future constitution of Pakistan. Except one, all of Jinnah’s colleagues voted for Objectives Resolution. By embarking Pakistan on the path of an Islamic state, founding fathers were sowing the seeds of distrust and fears within the nation of Pakistan, which was composed of various sub-nations primarily along ethnic lines. Maulana Abu-al-Ala Moudoudi, who correctly saw the creation of Pakistan as a product of Muslim nationalism (“chaste prostitution” he scoffed once on this very idea) jumped in as the Muslim League failed to follow through on making Pakistan an equal for all Muslim majority nation. MJ Akbar rightly said that Moudoudi’s children wrested Pakistan from Jinnah’s children. But Jinnah’s children repeatedly catered to Moudodi’s children because they never ever realized that negating Pakistan as an Islamist state was never ever a violation of the raison d’être of Pakistan.

Once Pakistan tried to impose Pakistani nationalism with a healthy dose of religion mixed in, minorities either fled the country, or rose against it. East Pakistan rebelled against the unjustness inside the nation of Pakistan, as it feared (rightly or wrongly) that its cultural identity will yield to the religious-nationalist Pakistani identity. East Pakistan was gone within 24 years of the birth of Pakistan.

Recognizing the Nation of Nations that is Pakistan

Still some 63 years after its birth, as Pakistan struggles to define itself as a nation, it is never too late to realize that Pakistan is a nation of many nations. It may also want to hark back to its origins and see that the perception of injustice and failure to recognize the identity of an Indian Muslim nation is what gave birth to Pakistan. That this 160 million strong nation of diverse nations cannot exist if it doesn’t accord equality as equal Pakistanis. However the religious discourse in Pakistan is so strong that even though Pakistan feels its inherent contradictions, it is powerless to do anything about it. There is a violent Baloch uprising going on, and Sindhi nationalism is kept at bay only by a party led by Sindhis that has strong appeal throughout Pakistan. If democracy is derailed once again, there is no telling how ferocious Sindhi nationalism will be against the state of Pakistan.

There are no fast and easy answers to the conundrum that is the Pakistani state. Pakistan did not get here overnight and will not heal quickly as well. However, in my humble opinion, if Pakistan has to survive as a viable state, the strong religious induced Pakistani nationalism that is threatening smaller nations within Pakistan needs to be checked by Pakistanis themselves. This is easier said than done. So let’s start with the basic lessons from history:

1) For smaller nations within the union of Pakistan to have any say, it is imperative that democracy must continue. Too many of unelected leaders (General Sher Ali and others of Yahya’s rule, General Zia-ul-Haq’s Islamist coterie) have reinforced the so called Islamist ideology of Pakistan, thereby threatening the smaller nations within the union, and weakening the foundations of the Pakistani state. Only continued democracy can ensure representation of all nations; allowing proper representation is the first step in recognizing the rights of a nation.

2)  The nation of Pakistan is simply a second derivative of various ethnic nations. There is no top down ideology of Pakistan, except a simple pledge to all of its nations that their culture, language, and rights are guaranteed by the state of Pakistan. Therefore Pakistan must realize that the idea of a religious narrative and a central language for the nation is perceived as a violation of the rights of the very nations that make up Pakistan. And if the history is any guide, perception is everything when it comes to national causes.

 3) Keynes famously said that ideas of economists and political philosophers are more powerful than commonly understood. Indeed, world is ruled by little else but ideas. The idea of an equal and secular Pakistan for all Pakistanis, independent of the religious ideology, is far more powerful than any of us realize. Today, Pakistan still has a free press, a working democracy and an independent judiciary. This environment, if allowed to continue, will spur critical thinking and introspection, and will allow the inherent contradiction of the official narrative to come under intense scrutiny. Eventually, this atmosphere of free exchange of ideas should look at Jinnah and his view on secularism. Our founders talked about Islam as embodying the principles of “equality, fraternity and social justice”. But they explicitly negated theocracy. Their idea of a moderate Islam as a guiding light for a fair and just society was far removed from the theocratic state that Moudoudi or other ulema wanted. Today, we understand the free flowing overlap a bit better that obscured religious and social lines for the Indian Muslim. We can take a step further 63 years later, and say that we do not need to carry the religion bogey carried by our founders to justify equality anymore. Separating religion from politics is the first step towards making all Pakistanis equal.

 4) The birth of a nation state is a result of the binding of a nation around a cause. When a country turns around to deny the very justice for all of its inhabitants in the new state, then it begins living in contradiction. Pakistan’s salvation, at the end, will lie in the lessons gleaned from its birth.


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Filed under: Democracy, Egalitarian Pakistan, History, Identity, Islam, Islamism, Pak Tea House, Pakistan, Religion, Rights, secular Pakistan, secularism · Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

1,226 Responses to "Nations within a Nation – The Search for a Pakistani Nation – 2"

  1. simply 61 Bahrain Google Chrome Windows says:

    The author wrote this: “Separating religion from politics is the first step towards making all Pakistanis equal.”
    And look what happened in the comment section…everyone went off on a tangent discussing the malpractices of Hinduism and Islam,the Ahemdais, Hazrat Krishna(this is cute.I have never heard this before….Sri Krishna as Hazrat…I like it) etc.If we as ordinary people can not resist the temptation to veer off into religious discussions(usually they are just barely hidden attacks on each other’s faiths) in the comment section of almost every article here then how is Pakistan as a nation ever going to achieve a separation of religion from the matters of State?

  2. AG United States Internet Explorer Windows says:

    The momemt one pitches one religion against another, it going to end up in reels of discussions and wastage of time. We need to understand that most of us have been born into our religions and have been raised in respective environments which makes it difficult to ‘feel’ the pulse of the ‘opposite’ side.
    I am not sure secondly, if one should equate Hinduism with any other religion.Hinduism does not have a prophet and a single set of teachings to adhere to, as against the Abrahamaic religions.
    However, one could see some positives of Hinduism.
    1. It is open to changing needs of the society
    2. It is a very democratic dispensation. No one questions as to whether Shaivism is right or Vaisnavism or else. There are so many sects within this ecosystem, but there have been practically no conflicts at the lowest level of intensity between us.
    3. It accepts views ranging from pure devotion, to Karma to the concept of one God to atheism as part and parcel of the same philosophic ecosystem.
    4.The loose structure therefore sustains itself across many societies. Remember, the same philosophical base runs across the entire south east asia.This is contrary to Islam, Christianity etc, which impose a culture that could be alien to te local environment and could tear apart existing cultures

  3. In this Land of Unequal Opportunities ,,,,,,,,, (you can well, imagine the rest).

  4. Akram Malik United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    I red it some where. One boy asked his mother why i can not i see GOD. She said yes there is GOD but you can not see.The boy said why ? The mother told him to bring a glass of water .Boy brought the glass of water.The mother pour in to the glass six spoon of sugar. And asked the boy do you see anything in to the glass the boy said yes i could see the sugar in the bottom of the glass.Then mother took a spoon and mixed up the sugar until it disappear then she asked her son do you see anything in the glass.The boy said no.This is the way you can not see the GOD.So my dear friends do not waist your and others time.All of us know that what is wright and what is wrong.You can not look in to somebody’s heart .I would like to ask you do the animals birds has any Religion ? No so the GOD has given this to us only so we can fight and bring the population down if there was only one religion no fight no wars .we are worse then the animals……………

  5. Mubarak United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    You are again using Lord Krishna’s name to legitimize Muhamamd or Messiah or Mirza or whatever you call them. Have you seen any Indian making similar attempts to establish link with Muhamad?

    I believe we can come to an agreement. We will stop praising Krishna in public if you stop defiling Muhammad in public.

  6. hiob Germany Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    to mubarak

    Hindus are not defiling Mohammad – it is all found in the ahadith written by muslims for muslims with muslim triumphalism in muslim lands under muslim rule.

    Then there are sentences in the kuran – not influenced by or written into it by hindus – which prove the fascism inherent in islam.

    Whether you praise Krishna or not, makes no difference to hindus. But your own texts reveal abysmal enforcements upon you. So be honest and not polemical.

  7. Mubarak United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:


    So be honest and not polemical

    Where are the polemics? Honestly speaking, you’re only exhibiting prejudice against Islam and its holy founder, which obviously suggests an inability on your part to exercise objectivity. I’m only trying, and admittedly with little success, to help you open your eyes and see the facts you strive so hard to ignore. So where are the polemics? I don’t see any polemics. In fact, if there is anything I do see, it’s your persistent state of “pollymix”. “Polly”, as you know, stands for a parrot that goes on with its endless rants without any mental involvement. “Mix” is an English word used to highlight a certain mental condition in which things really get mixed up. I mean really mixed up.

  8. Arjun United States Safari Mac OS says:

    Pakistan is doomed to fail ( many Pakistanis just do not like this) It is equally important for SouthAsia too that Pakistan succeeds BUT not in terms what Pakistan wants but as what Asia wants.
    Pakistan needs to model itself into a liberal turkey model seriously or just follow India to establish multireligious secularism -which is impossible for islamic religon event to visualise forget about even trying.
    Day in day we see readers in Dawn and Dailytimes asking Pakistan to emulate secular model -the answer as every Pakistan fears is impossible. The idea to prove that Islam is greater than Indian culture has utterly failed and will fail. India has stopped islam in its tracts 4 centuries ago. Religious arrogance cannot make one forget the roots of culture and nation. As mush Pakistanis say Islam is superior, the answer lies in its very evident failure today. As long as islam is shown to be greater than Pakistan and its subcultures, Pakistan will never come out of its current terrible crisis. Just today shiites were attacked by gunmen-by evening I will hear with great distree that 30 shiites have been killed. The story of trying to prove Islam is greater than Indian subculture will continue only to utterly fail.

  9. Maya Netherlands Google Chrome Windows says:

    It’s amusing how Pakistanis have found a new way to justify Islam and its primitiveness i.e. Hindu[ism] bashing and looking for what Hindus do wrong. Trust me, Hinduism hasn’t led to even 10% of the violence led by Islam.

  10. Maya Netherlands Google Chrome Windows says:

    One more thing, Muslims asking for a separate land isn’t unique to India, Muslims have the tendency of believing in being superior to non-Muslims which leads to all the bigotry we see in the whole world resulting from the teaching of your wonderful religion ‘Islam’. Ever wondered why Britain, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, France etc. are facing home grown terrorism and have to deal with so much of violence, criminality and ghettoism by the Muslims?

  11. krishna pachegonker,aurangabad,india India Internet Explorer Windows says:

    indeed very exhaustive and scholarly article . it was a mis-carriage of history that india and pak became two political entities but people are terribly same!

  12. Kashif United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    @ Maya
    //…Ever wondered why Britain, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, France etc. are facing home grown terrorism and have to deal with so much of violence…//

    You mean Andres Behring Breivik of Norway and Timothy McVeigh of USA were Muslims?

  13. raison Germany Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    to kashif

    Both did in the way muslims do – so they are muslims. They too were motivated by muslim examples.

  14. Kashif United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    @ Raison
    You are priceless.

  15. kaalabhartibhai India Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    A very enlightened article. “Two nation theory” was consecrated by the british by putting it into the starting paras of the “India Independence Act” of 1947. They had no business to do this. In every village in India, all religious persuasions have lived side by side for millenia. Gandhi’s son converted to Islam and he asked Jinnah if he and his son were now in different nations, and there was no reply. Nehru & Patel remained silent on the wording of the India Independence Act and it was left to gandhi alone to protest in principle. ( V P Menon,”Reforms Commissioner” & a glorified office-boy of Mountbatten had supposedly drafted the Act at the instance of the Brits who were hell-bent on showing that partition was something done by Indians). I say all this to emphasise that we all fell into a british trap and all the Indian/Hindu hawks on this blog cannot deny that we betrayed NWFP which had a Congress Govt of Ghaffar Khan’s leadership and became part of Pakistan because of a British-rigged referendum. Let us recognise that we have a common humanity, and it is the nefarious gorachamda who did this and Pakistan needs to become pluralist and secular as the writer envisages and we go further to have good relations like Bangladesh today and India

  16. Milestogo United States Safari iPhone says:

    Secular is haram.

  17. Dronacharya Saudi Arabia Mozilla Firefox Windows says:




  18. ahem Germany Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    Iran-Af-Pak should become one to regain their dignity and independence from arab imperialism and ethno-fascism and islamic fascism created by arabs in Makkah. To be slaves of arabs and a fascist arab god-concept for more than 1200 years – is that not shameful?

  19. AKB Pakistan Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    @ Maya

    This is not true. If you were in majority in Pakistan you would also have demanded your kinda rule to prevail. The truth is that where ever a certain people belonging to the same ethnicity, religion or language, abound they tend to demand their own way….pretty natural otherwise so many nations wouldn’t have developed. Even in big cities we found China towns, Bengali and Burmese paara’s, the Muhajir row in Sindh, the Seraiki sooba, etc etc to name a few ….all these are natural socio-political reactions resulting from the class concentration at a place. India too is suffering from the same problem though artificially suppressed. One day it will happen to India as well.

  20. AKB Pakistan Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    @ Milestogo


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