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Communalism and the two-nation theory

By Saad Hafiz:

Press Council of India Chairperson Justice (Retd) Katju was quoted recently as saying that “Before 1857, there was zero percent communalism. Today 80 percent Hindus and 80 percent Muslims are communal.” Justice Katju is also reported to have said, “The cause of the Kashmir problem is the partition of India on a totally bogus basis — the two nation theory — that Hindus and Muslims are separate nations.”

In a country which takes pride in its secular and pluralistic society with the second largest Muslim population in the world, Katju’s admission that communalism remains pervasive and that Hindu-Muslim riots can be engineered at the drop of a hat is concerning but welcome. It also raises questions about the frequently made assertion that Hinduism has always tolerated other religious viewpoints. It seems that as long as Indian politicians continue to play communal politics in the name of secularism and ignore the very Indian tradition of religious tolerance that exists for centuries, the country will have more conflicts that are religious.

Pakistan, where the near ‘genocidal’ killings based on sectarianism, ethnicity and communalism are rampant, can hardly take comfort from Katju’s admission. Despite the killings of thousands of people in sectarian clashes, the state has been unable or unwilling to identify the forces and factors behind them or taken serious action against the perpetrators. The standard excuse put forth is that Islam, which gives a message of peace, love and respect for humanity, has been betrayed by those who intend to use the Muslims and Islam for their political gains or attainment of power. One can only wonder what to make of Jinnah’s supposed advice to a supporter in 1942 to “Achieve Pakistan or perish” when Muslims and minorities are perishing at the hands of fellow Muslims daily in Pakistan.

Katju is also reported to have said, “I do not recognise Pakistan as a legitimate country because the whole basis is the two-nation theory and I do not accept the two-nation theory.” He said, “The one and only solution to the Kashmir problem or the militancy problem in Pakistan is the reunification of India and Pakistan under a strong, central, secular, modern-minded government, which just doesn’t tolerate bigotry,” adding that such a government would deal with fanaticism with an iron hand. Katju seems to be in agreement with Jinnah who in a lone stand argued in favour of a unitary government for India at the first Round Table Conference in 1930. Jinnah felt that a federation in a country made up of such diverse elements would strengthen fissiparous tendencies.

A counter-argument to a centralised setup is the political progress made by India from the early enunciation of a linguistic state framework for handling the country’s ethnic and linguistic diversity by the Congress Party, while the reverse holds true for Pakistan. Pakistan’s abysmal experience also does not lend credence to the argument that a strong central government is better suited to hold a country together or confront bigotry, fanaticism and terrorism as compared to a decentralised democratic structure.

Katju’s last comment that the “two-nation theory” is bogus and should be reversed is probably the most contentious. In India, within a secular polity power sharing between disparate ethnic and communal groups in multinational and multi-ethnic states is working despite periodic challenges. No recognisable group questions its validity. Religion is getting more and more personalised, the divisions between religion and state are becoming bolder and bolder in relief. In Pakistan on the other hand the influence of religion on governance of the state is on the increase and the leaders of the government have been seen to bend backwards to accommodate the views of the fundamentalists. In this milieu, the two-nation theory has stayed in place in its pure glory in Pakistan and none can question it.

Finally, Hindus and Muslims, separate nations or not, have to learn to live together as peaceful neighbours. Communal and political issues have to take a back seat to finding economic solutions. The general mass of the people in India and Pakistan are more concerned about problems that concern them directly like employment, rising prices, education and healthcare. Reversing the two-nation theory, impractical as it sounds, is not a priority at this stage. The only way forward is to forget about fighting ‘thousand-year’ wars and invoking cold start doctrines and instead focus on providing a head start to millions of South Asians still languishing in poverty and misery.

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160 Responses to "Communalism and the two-nation theory"

  1. Dronacharya Saudi Arabia Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    25% of GUJARAT’s MLAs are rapists (have rape cases against them). WOAW.

    Another Daastan of Rape from Rape Country :

    Vijayawada/Hyderabad: National capital is caught in uproar against the brutal rape of 23 year old Shahnaaz, a para-medical student who is now fighting for her life in a hospital bed. Away from media galore, however, family members of victim of another para-medical student in Vijayawada are waiting for justice five years after the incident.

    Exactly five year ago, on December 26, 2007 Ayesha Meeraan, 19 year old pharmacy student was gang raped inside the girls’ hostel she was living and brutally

    Ayesha Meeraan, a resident of Tenali Town in Guntur District was a student of NIMRA Engineering and medical college at neighbouring Vijayawada city in Krishna district. 100 K.m. away from her home she was staying at Sri Durga Ladies Hostel in Ibrahimpatnam village near her college.

    In the early hours of morning on December 27, 2007 Ayesha’s naked blood soaked body was found in the hostel toilet with legs and hands tied to water tap and the iron rod, with her own dress.

    Her head was under pool of blood and it was clear that her head was banged on the wall and made unconscious before she was brutally raped. Autopsy report found that she was not only being raped before getting killed of brain damage due to head injury, but that inhuman act continued even on her dead body.

    At that time this case caused sensation in Andhra Pradesh when the names of senior Congress leaders were brought up. GRANDSON OF FORMER DEPUTY CHIEF MINISER, K. RANGA RAO (then Municipal Administration minister), Koneru Satish, who was the Sarpanch of the village was one of the suspects. Another suspect was Congress Mandal President Cheruku Madhav Rao !!!

    For 5 years, shrouded in lax investigations by Police, the case has seen many flip-flops. In September, 2010 the lone accused Satyam Babu, a physically handicapped illiterate man from a backward community, was convicted and sentenced for life. Ayesha Meeraan’s family, however, claim that Babu was a scapegoat to save the real culprits.

    At the time of incident many Muslim groups, women and human rights organizations had protested frequently in Vijayawada when investigation was not dealt properly. One such organization was Muslim United Front of Vijayawada. Its president Habeebur Rehman told TCN that he lost hope that Ayesha will ever get justice in the present situation.

    Habeebur Rehman alleged that the role of Police was wary from the beginning. “The fact is police even failed to protect the crime scene, most of the crucial evidence was cleaned before police had reached the spot,” he alleged.

    Rehman explained that there were 20 students on the second floor of the hostel, where the crime took place, including Ayesha’s two roommates. The only stairs to reach the 2nd floor was locked by an iron gate whose keys were always with its warden I. Padma. “But surprisingly gang of murderers climbed those stairs entered the building, gang raped and brutally killed an innocent girl and every one denied even hearing anything that night,” he added. Everyone said : “MAAKI TELIYADU” (We dont know !).

    Rehman said locals who assembled at spot had seen Sarpanch of the village Koneru Satish and Congress Mandal president Madhav Rao in the Hostel before Police arrived. MUF also claimed that their organization collected the phone records of the Hostel and found that frequent calls were made to a doctor in the early morning of December 27.

    MUF claimed that Doctor was called even before Police to clear any forensic evidence. After MUF reveled the fact about presence of Doctor at the site, investigating officer next day gave clean chit to the Doctor by saying that he was present there whole day for ‘some other propose’.

    Police could not find any evidence except a love letter written allegedly by the killer, some blood stains on the clothes of Ayesha, a left foot print in her room and handwritten word by marker ‘Chirutta’(leopard) in Telugu written on the chest of the deceased.

    The case had caused uproar in the Andhra Pradesh Assembly in early 2008 when Chandrababu Naidu, Leader of the Opposition attacked CM Rajshekar Reddy on the alleged involvement of the kin of his cabinet minister.

    3 Police Commissioners were changed in Vijayawada during the course of preliminary investigation. Government even fielded Muslim IPS officer AK Khan to pacify the agitated Muslims whom started believing that investigation was getting diverted.

    Police tried to arrest kin of Ayesha Meeraan, including her uncle, with whom Police alleged Ayesha had an affair ! Ayesha Meeraan’s father Syed Iqbal Basha said it was the tactic of the Police to build pressure on the family so they would restrain from demanding justice and to bring Ayesha in the poor light in the society.

    When Police couldn’t find anything against Ayesha’s family, under pressure they arrested Sivanjaneyulu from Hyderabad and declared him an accused. When nothing was found against Sivan, police arrested Upendra Singh from Jagityal in Karimnagar district and later his accomplice Gurvindar Singh Anand alias Laddu who was already in jail for other rape charges. But Police had to release them off when no proof was found against them and when their kin approached state human rights commission.

    During the process of police investigation, AP minority’s commission, national women commission, and state human rights commission did their own independent investigation and found many lapses in police investigation. They recommended interrogation of key players including hostel warden and politicians of the village.

    Infact polygraph test was done on K. Satish by the police, and during the test reports reveled that Satish lied to police on two occasions, when he was asked if he knew the hostel owner, and when asked if he is hiding any facts.

    As a year passed by and Police appeared clueless, suddenly one day Piduthala Satyam Babu was arrested in the case and made prime accused.

    During the process of his trail, Satyam was taken for medical examination, and Satyam who can’t walk without the support of others, according to police, escaped from the custody of 10 officers. But when Dalit organizations started protests fearing his encounter, he was declared found after some hours.

    Satyam Babu, a Christian Dalit who is suffering from GB syndrome and can hardly walk, was convicted in September, 2010 in Ayesha Meeraan gang rape and murder case and awarded life imprisonment.

    Shamshad Begum, mother of Ayesha Meera and a Lecturer by profession, believes that Satyam Babu was made a scape goat by the Congress Government to save the kin of their cabinet minister. Even villagers of Satyam’s village claimed that Satyam at the night of December 26 was in his village of Anasargarm and attended mass prayers of the Christmas Eve.

    Speaking to TCN Satyam’s lawyer, Srinivas said “Women trail court convicted Satyam Babu on the basis of confession statement taken in police custody, and on the report from a tainted doctor of AP Forensic Lab, Dr.Venkanna (he was caught red-handed by ACB while he was accepting a bribe for making a false forensic report). And moreover that Judge didn’t allowed defense lawyer to question the prosecution witness.”

    Srinivas added that trail in women court was conducted in a hurried manner as Government was keen in protecting their workers. Advocate Srinivas believes that in High court they will be able to prove the innocence of Satyam Babu. They will then demand fresh enquiry in Ayesha’s rape and murder case to make sure that real culprits are brought to justice, he added.

    Syed Iqbal Basha, a mathematics teacher and father of Ayesha Meeraan told TCN, “Even after 5 years of suffering we have not received justice as Police failed to make unbiased investigation.” He added that the family met even the Vice-president Hamid Ansari and other senior government officials in the state to beg for justice and fair investigation but they got nothing but lip service.

    Iqbal also alleges that when he, accompanied by MIM president Assaduddin Owaisi, met Chief Minister Rajshekar Reddy he asked him to take 75,000 rupees and close the matter as it was matter of ‘unholy love affair between uncle and her niece’.

    Iqbal said he was disheartened by the words of CM and refused to accept the ex-gratia and demanded justice.

    Kaneez Fatima, Joint Secretary of Civil Liberties Monitoring committee, said that Ayesha’s case proves how influential people often influence the course of investigation, and how old parents whose daughter were raped and murdered have to face all kind of discrimination, even by the CM.

    Fatima added late YS Rajshekar Reddy was responsible for diverting the investigation and denying justice to the family. She said it was the duty of Muslim leadership to get justice for their community’s daughter, in which they have failed shamefully.

    She also said that although the investigation is being diverted, but it’s never been too late for the justice to be done. She demanded CBI enquiry into the case for free and fair probe.

    Shamshad Begum was upset that most of the community leaders and members did not stand with the family in the time of need, and its leaders often betrayed them. She said once she went to the office of senior Congress leader and then electricity minister Mohd. Ali Shabbir but he didn’t even bother to respond to her salam and she was not allowed to enter his office.

    The family of Ayesha Meeraan said they are stuck in a situation where they can’t do anything except to wait for the judgment of the High Court on Satyam Babu, only when Satyam Babu is proven innocent they can move to court for a fresh investigation.

    The family is resolute though that they will fight till end to get justice for their daughter. Breaking down into tears Iqbal said that he believes in Allah and that even if courts failed to provide justice, Allah will definitely listen to their plight, and will provide peace to their daughter’s soul.



  2. Kaalchakra United States Google Chrome Windows says:


    Amazing and fantastic work. While many of your ideas are silly, but your jihad (to call it anything else would to insult it) to brand Hindus, brahmins, RSS etc is heartwarmingly on target. But I am saddened that other Muslims and liberal Hindus have not joined you yet.

    Perhaps we need to explain to them why such branding is so Islamically necessary. Without such constant branding there would be no Islam, no justice, no goodness. Let’s follow Prophet Muhammad’s steps and take on the forces of evil, and for that we must brand all others, all evil forces, full scale.

    So come on, all ye who sleep, and join drone! There is much sawab in this work.

  3. Dronacharya Saudi Arabia Mozilla Firefox Windows says:







  4. Kaalchakra United States Google Chrome Windows says:


    Khajuraho brothels (which Hindus call temples) should serve our purpose well. We can claim that those are the scenes of Muslims being raped by RSS and BJP under brahminic guidance. That way, at least some of the traffic can be diverted to Saudi Arabia, and Muslims can make some money. A bit cynical, but these are desperate times for Muslims.

    Can’t we get someone to write a few books like that? Although I don’t consider Ahmadis to be Muslims, they are the best at this sort of stuff.

    Saad Hafiz, can you lend us a couple of your experienced and knowledgeable truth researchers and historians, please? This is important work.

  5. Maggu India Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    An Arab walked into a very crowded bar and was about to order a drink when he saw a guy wearing a Jewish cap, a prayer shawl, and sporting the traditional locks of hair of a Jew.
    The Arab told the bartender, loud enough for all to hear that, he was buying everyone a drink except the Jewish fellow.
    After the drinks were handed out, the Jew gave the Arab a big smile, waved at him, then said, “Thank you!” in an equally loud voice.
    This infuriated the Arab.
    Once again, the Arab loudly ordered drinks for everyone – except the Jew.
    But as before, this did not seem to bother the Jewish guy, who once again smiled, waved at the Arab, and loudly yelled “Thank you!”
    The Arab asked the bartender, “What the hell is the matter with that Jew? I’ve ordered two rounds of drinks for everyone in the bar but him and all the silly bugger did was to smile and thank me. Is he nuts?”
    “Nope,” replied the bartender, “He owns the place!”

  6. Kaalchakra United States Google Chrome Windows says:

    Standing up for non-communal Ahmadis

    I may not believe that Ahmadis have any relationship to any form of Islam, but am proud to stand up for them when needed.

    On Liberal Tribune, one fellow maligned Ahmadis as rank communalists. I hope Saad Bhai would see that I presented his progressive point of view fairly and well. If this is not true love, one would not know what it is.

    — Quote for Liberal Tribune —-
    Nasir Imam 2 hours ago
    A historical correction: It was not Muslim league leaders who were meeting Quaid-i-Azam in a London living room in those cold London nights in 1933. It was a Muslim missionary belonging to the much maligned Ahmadiyya community called A. R. Dard who was the imam of the London mosque at the time. Mr. Dard met Jinnah several times, for hours at a time, and finally convinced him to return to Pakistan and lead the struggle for independence. JInnah made the announcement that he was returning to India at the London mosque at a reception arranged by Mr. Dard and this was reported in the London Times. In the opening sentence of his speech, Jinnah acknowledged the role Mr. Dard had played in convincing him to return. The Quaid said that “the eloquent persuasion of the imam left me no escape”.
    I have never understood why our pseudo-historians insist on ignoring this admittedly inconvenient fact despite overwhelming evidence that it was Mr. Dard who succeeded before others had even tried.

    ReplyKaalchakra 22 minutes ago
    Nasir bhai
    From reliable Ahmadi sources, you have it wrong. Mr Dard was not making any religious case to Jinnah. He was asking for the separation of and the rights of all people living in the North Western states of India – including Hindus, Christians, Ahmadis and so forth – not just Muslims. You are unwittingly giving a very communal color to Ahmadis, while Ahmadis love all and hate none. I would appreciate if you could correct that impression for yourselves and for others.

  7. saad United States Google Chrome Windows says:


    I am my own ‘one man’ researcher! Let me know what you need exactly and I will try to oblige from a non-Ahmadi viewpoint!

  8. Dronacharya Saudi Arabia Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    Justice VK Krishna Iyer has said : “The system is prejudiced against low castes.. and only low caste criminals get punished” (this was with reference to death penalty !

    India has lost the moral high-ground. This happens when you go for Soft Hindutva (Programmed Communalism). In the short term you can sail, but in the long term it destroys everything. The Idea of India is far more sacred than India itself. It is the Soul of India.

    Congress Leadership has always been weak. With the Idea of India., its okay to lose 10 elections in a row. Politics teaches both the leaders and the voters. There are no short cuts. The HIndus will initially vote RSS.. but after sometimes.. realise their folly. It is then they will realise the worth of the IDEA of India.. But by this time there would be huge loss of life. This is an evolution of sort.. and there is a cost to it. Huge human cost. (Unfortuantely).

    Nehru tried to save Hindus and India from that… but after Nehru, Indira destroyed Nehruvian vision.. and the Idea of India.. for political power.

  9. kaalchakra United States Mozilla Firefox Ubuntu Linux says:

    Thanks saad bhai

    I am looking for a few blue-blooded Ahmadi or Ahmadi inspired scholars and researchers to write a couple of books, preferably ancient, to show that Ajanta Allora temples depict scences of Brahmins raping Muslims, and were locales for the sale and exploitation of all non-brahmin women. Proper references to and sanskritic root analysis of Dus Vedas, Panch Smritis, Prophets Ram Chander and Kishan Chander who brought the same message as Prophet Muhammad and Prophet Mirza Ghulam, which then the Brahmins and the RSS destroyed would be very helpful in making our case.

    To be honest, as a Basaweswara follower, drone himself is perfectly qualified for the task, but we should rather save him for branding Hindus!

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