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Pak Tea House » Identity, Jinnah, Politics » Drawing a Line o the Events of 1947

Drawing a Line o the Events of 1947

By Ghazala Akbar

quaid-in-chairThe division of the Sub-continent into India and Pakistan and eventually into Bangladesh reverberates 66 years after the event. Partition as we are painfully aware did not begin or end in 1947. Not a single day passes, in the collective memories and in the present day politics of our three countries when we are not reminded or are rueful of the consequences of this cleaving. It is a continual work-in-progress, a chapter that never seems to close.

Was Partition a logical conclusion of the colonial policy of divide and rule? Was it inevitable, unavoidable or engineered? What were the pressures on the British Government in scissoring their most prized imperial possession and exiting the scene in indecent haste? Who was responsible for giving Pakistan its final ‘moth-eaten’ shape? Could the blood and tears have been minimised? And the eternal question:  why didn’t they settle the issue of Kashmir then and there in 1947?

A recent play performed at the Hampstead Theatre in London re-examines these themes from a refreshingly new perspective. It is not the dominant persona of Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah or Mountbatten that take centre stage but a seemingly bit player, Cyril Radcliffe, an unassuming Judge who was entrusted with the unenviable task of setting the final boundaries of the lands we now know as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Dramatising a pivotal moment of South Asian history that is slowly being lost to living memory ‘Drawing the Line’ by Howard Brenton is a vivid political essay that examines personal relationships, political intrigue, double-speak and outright bias that underscored the final moments of the dying Raj. Deftly mixing fact and fiction Brenton weaves a provocative historical narrative in two and a quarter riveting hours, with each line loaded with intent and meaning. The minimalist sets — light-filtering through full-length filigree screens furnish a stunning backdrop.

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This is not the sepia-tinted Raj nostalgia that we often see on screen, of stiff-upper lipped Sahibs and linen-clad Memsahibs wistfully lowering the Union Jack on the Gateway of India. This is a hard-nosed examination of realpolitik, a revelatory fly-in-the-wall account on how amongst other factors, an uneasy marriage and an illicit liaison influenced the unfolding of political events and impacted the map of Pakistan.

So how did this all come about? The author of the work, Howard Brenton, on a vacation to India in 2009, met people whose families had migrated from the area of Pakistan. His curiosity about Partition was aroused.  Back in England he wondered:  how was the border drawn? His researches led him to Cyril Radcliffe, ‘a brilliant legal mind…but there are indications that during the time he spent drawing the border he had a personal crisis. My playwright’s brain went into overdrive…what a character, what did he go through, a decent liberal man confident in his sense of ‘fairness’, thrown into that bewildering and violent situation…’

And so it begins in the heat of July 1947.  Radcliffe who has never travelled abroad except for Venice is sent by the post-war Attlee government to chair the Boundary Commission that will bring an ‘honourable end’ to the Raj in India. ‘Tiny little problem though’ says his wife, matter-of-factly. ‘You know bugger all about India’. What he knows about cartography and creating countries is even less. But what he does know is that the task will be messy and bloody. 100, 000 deaths would be ‘an acceptable level’ says a cynical, preening Mountbatten, the last Viceroy.

Radcliffe has just five weeks to do the job. He must cut-up the map of India and locate a new country, Pakistan which ‘exists in the heart but not on earth’. He must be logical, unemotional, impartial, independent and fair…but can he really be all these things? Upon arrival, he is sucked into the whirlpool of Indian politics and confronts its ugly realities. Amongst his staff there are lobbyists and spies for both camps. They can barely conceal their hatreds and prejudices or even be in the same room together.

The maps, the census figures are outdated or unreliable. There is no time for on-the-spot inspections. He has a timetable to which he must strictly adhere. As the clock ticks, his unsuitability to the Indian climate takes its toll; he is stricken with a severe bout of ‘Delhi-belly.’ The complexities of the task, of dividing communities, towns, villages, fields, irrigation schemes, communication links, rivers, ports and cities is all too much.  He begins to unravel… physically, psychologically.

Not only must Radcliffe reconcile the implacable interests of the Congress and the Muslim League, there is pressure from another quarter: the imperious Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten and his wife Edwina. Far from being neutral spectators, the glamorous power-couple have their own concerns. Mountbatten has a particular vested interest in exiting India, fast: his beautiful, financially-independent wife is besotted with the future Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. There is talk of divorcing ‘Dickie’, marrying Nehru and becoming the First lady of India.

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Although it is not part of any official record, the romantic relationship of Nehru and the viceroy’s wife has writ large in the gossip columns of history. (Certainly, in Pakistan there were never any doubts). In Alex Von Tunzelmann’s engaging 2007 work (‘Indian Summer: the secret history of an Empire)’ the English historian devotes considerable space to the affair and the Mountbatten’s ‘open marriage’. (Some critics say she gives it too much space, given it is a scholarly work!)

Mountbatten’s daughter Pamela Hicks in her book, (‘India remembered: a personal account of the Mountbattens during the transfer of power’) admits the couple were ‘in love’ but that the relationship was purely ‘platonic’. They frequently wrote letters to each other. And when Edwina died prematurely at age 58, Nehru sent two Indian frigates to accompany her last rites at sea. (Imagine the uproar in the Indian parliament and media were this to happen now!)

To what extent this friendship affected the final shape of the map of the sub-continent can only be imagined. Brenton’s Play, however, leaves little room for doubt and he uses considerable poetic license to spice things up. Nehru and Edwina are shown in each others arms, cavorting in the corridors of power or hand-in-hand in refugee camps.  Radcliffe is reminded by Edwina that ‘hope lies with Nehru, not the Muslim League.’ In one memorable scene the Mountbattens have a blazing row about him being used as a messenger for her ‘darkie.’ She is unrepentant and in turn accuses her husband of deliberately fast-forwarding the Independence Bill by 9 months to hasten her departure from India and Nehru — a charge he does not deny.

Radcliffe too is confronted with a crisis of confidence and conscience. He has already succumbed to arm-twisting on the final location of Calcutta. The fate of Kashmir, earmarked by him for Pakistan will be ‘decided’ through a referendum. But he must draw the line somewhere on making unethical compromises.  He cannot be a gangster’s ‘patsy’ any longer. He will resign. Cracking up under the pressure, he seeks solace in the wisdom of the Bhagwad Gita. A nocturnal visit from the deity in the shape of Lord Krishna gives him his moment of clarity. The lines must be re-drawn. Ferozepur, he cries out, divinely inspired, Ferozepur must go to Pakistan!

Soon enough, Radcliffe is rudely brought down to earth. The representative of the King Emperor, Mountbatten pays him a visit to remind him of geo-political realities: India is bigger, more populous and the more powerful. ‘If we must favour her, so be it.’ Radcliffe must change his map again. A knighthood waits. A fee too. Five thousand pounds? Surely it can be increased. Aghast, Radcliffe declines.  He questions the viceroy’s neutrality — to which Mountbatten retorts: ‘fairness was just an outward show.’ Radcliffe appeals to the heavens. ‘Oh, God!’

The rest we know is history. A contemporary poem by WH Auden entitled ‘Partition’ lampoons the moment superbly:

‘…but in seven weeks it was done, the frontiers decided

 A continent for better or for worse divided

The next day he sailed for England, where he could quickly forget

The case, as a good lawyer must. Return he would not.

Afraid, as he told his club, that he might get shot.

As the hour of freedom approaches, Jinnah and Nehru address their born – again nations. Vicious flames erupt ominously behind the delicate filigree screens. The ‘free’ sub-continent is burning.  It is a chilling moment and … 66 years later, I could not help shed a tear or suppress anger at the unfairness of it all. Pakistan was deliberately born deformed. A bird without a head…two unequal wings and no body. It was crippled from the start, never meant to work, always meant to fail.

 

My mind raced backwards. The Wars of 1948, 1965, 1971, 1999… the needless slaughter. Dark thoughts of revenge, retribution, righting historical wrongs clouded my imagination. I recalled a TV interview of Mountbatten — he had gloated when East and West Pakistan had broken-up, the two-nation theory in tatters. I remembered too of his assassination by the IRA in 1979. No flags were lowered in Pakistan. Then mercifully I had a Nelson Mandela moment: focus on the present, not the past. Move forward, not back. People that continually invoke past grievances remain bitter and confused, stifled and stationery. We must draw a line on the events of the past. Only then can the nations of South Asia be truly free.

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19 Responses to "Drawing a Line o the Events of 1947"

  1. Romain United States Internet Explorer Windows says:

    Alas, the lesson one learns is that it isn’t good to be a rose betwixt two thorns.

  2. savera Pakistan Google Chrome Windows says:

    Finally exposed.!! That har…mountbatten and that tart edwina, who played with the lives of millions of innocent people. May their souls never rest in peace.

  3. PMA United States Google Chrome Windows says:

    “Then mercifully I had a Nelson Mandela moment: focus on the present, not the past…….. Move forward, not back…….People that continually invoke past grievances remain bitter and confused, stifled and stationery………..We must draw a line on the events of the past………Only then can the nations of South Asia be truly free.”

  4. masadi Pakistan Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    The British presided over a preassessed carnage that was supposed to chart out the future of the two nations and turn one into a garrison state, no secret about that one, but the locals, as Unkil Toms, were the necessary instruments for achieving it- and have no doubt about it the current condition both internal and across the subcontinent is merely a fermentation of what the British did, facilitated by the likes of you know who. History cannot be undone without undoing what the British did, and those are the artificially created borders of mind and geography.

  5. Amin United Kingdom Safari iPad says:

    Pity Mr. Jinnah in 1947 wasn’t as handsome as Imran Khan today.

  6. Pankaj India Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    Partition was the BEST thing that happened to Hindus

    .
    Since Muslim strength was divided
    NOW they are realising their Mistake

  7. tajender United Arab Emirates Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    pankaj partition was good for people of bangladeshi and punjabi muslims.

    in the long run high caste hindus will loose power to backwards,dalits and muslim.hindu is segregated society.each hate other.india should have been united and run like muslims were running.kejriwal defeated bjp-rss in no time.this is the future of india.if this time rss bjp failed to capture delhi,their downfall will start.

  8. Sophia United States Safari iPad says:

    Amina my dear, Imran Khan had the looks but lacks brains and wisdom.

  9. Muzzie India Opera  Opera Mobi/ADR-1309251116) Presto/2.11.355 Version/12.10 says:

    Partition was the best thing ever for hindus i agree

    Muslims in pakietan are slaughtering each other and soon all shia and ahmadi will be wiped out in civil war

    Then the barelvi deobandis will fight to death

    then finally taliban will take over.

    These ex Hindus now known as Pakies were converted to Islam by rape for over thousand years.

    A religion of uneducated arabs that just bombed russia. Now ready to die !

    LOOOOOL

  10. Muzzie India Opera  Opera Mobi/ADR-1309251116) Presto/2.11.355 Version/12.10 says:

    ALL world religions hate Pakie muslims

    Converted children of rape by invader

  11. FZA United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    The ideals, motivations and possibly the visions of the founders of Pakistan were quite different from those of the masses who actually made the enormous and bloody sacrifice. Granted that Mountbatten callously said that 100, 000 deaths would be ‘an acceptable level’, but did not the founders of Pakistan realize that too? Why did they agree to the ‘the needless slaughter’ of both sides and predominantly Muslims? Why did they allow themselves to come to this point of no return?
    There was a big disconnect between the Jinnah and the masses. They adored him although they did not understand much of what he was saying, since he spoke mostly English and not Urdu. I think his and other political leader’s westernization really impressed the Muslims who superimposed their own Islamic idealisms and fervor on these charismatic leaders. They sacrificed for an Islamic state, a pure state ‘Pakistan’, but nobody knew how to build one. It was a precursor to the kind of almost thoughtless and emotional revolution which has brought such havoc into the existing world. Probably the socialistic influences of the time to which the western trained leaders were exposed had something to do with it; the slogan of Islam was used as the driver and motivator. This is still being done—in Egypt and other places.
    This is not a commentary on the Qaid’s personal life or a denial of Iqbal’s fervor for Islam. But it is one thing to have a mesh of idealisms and philosophies, but quite another to act on these confused medley and implicitly allow the massacre and uprooting of hundreds of thousands hoping that everything will fall into place.
    I hope and have started to believe that everything will one day be alright and inshAllah. Pakistan will stop from collapsing from inside—but that will be because of the very sincere and pious persons, friends of God, who pray for its survival, and the many who have died needlessly before and since its creation inshAllah.

  12. Deen United States Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    As we know, the whole process of partition, dividing India and creating Pakistan, was prostituted by the British.

  13. European United States Google Chrome Windows says:

    Ghazla Akabar uses the fictional play to give vent to every enduring Pakistani prejudice imaginable. Pakistani ‘historians’ are obsessed with Nehru-Edwina affair and look for occasions to wallow in imagined ‘historical wrongs supposedly done to them by every vested interest. Instead of sparing a thought for what historical wrongs they themselves might have committed on others in bringing matters to their current status, they surrender to dark thoughts of imaginary revenge, retribution, and righting historical wrongs, or, failing that, assign to themselves the mantle of Mandela.

    There is no Mandela in Pakistan. No Mandela moment.

  14. tajender United Arab Emirates Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    pankaj jee,

    in 1905 churchill decided to leave india as nothing left to rob.moreover cost to keep occupation was incresing with resistance.occupation of india became loosing venture.india was given to those hindus who helped them to rob india.that is why rss killed mahatama ghandhi.they were bigger collaborator,but got noting.same way pakistan was given to their muslim agent.now we should live in peace and work for betterment of common man.we need chair man mao not mandela.

  15. KAMRAN Pakistan Internet Explorer Windows says:

    We some University Students have found the following comment exactly relevant to the present topic.
    It is factually said IN ALL THE SAGE AND SANE DOCTRINES that ” A HYPOCRITE IS THOUSAND TIMES MORE DANGEROUS AND EXTREMELY WORSE THAN AN ATHEIST OR UNBELIEVER ” Unfortunately, the Muslims of Pakistannd don’t realize this fundamental principle so they find themselves nowhere. They just start generally following any intriguer, whether swipper, cobbler, hawker or drunkard from whatever mean decendents or circles, who raise the slogans of Spicy and Fashionable Religion. Blinded by all the outward pomp they didn’t think ‘WHO AND FROM WHOM WAS THAT JINNAH POONJA AND WHAT HE HAD TO DO WITH MUSLIMS OR ISLAM !’
    We, so many IT Unit Members through “Youths Research Union” have noted the following matter that the muslims of Pakistan have been suffering more and more due to the fact that, in this enlightened age of knowledge they have been still in the dark that in the British Era those so called Muslims who were the PET DOGS from public, working for British Regime, were used to be honoured as SIRS and so was Sir Syed. The explicit proof is the country Pakistan itself that was created through the dangerous conspiracies of Freemasonry ( anti-Muslim Jewish-Masonic conspiracy ) and Sabahi Decendents (Pharaohs believing themselves as the incarnation of GOD ) -Sultan Aghakhan who, in full command of the Aligarh Muslim University, made himself as “Founder Pro-Vice Chancellor” ( although his sect is absolutely anti-Islamic), hijacked Pakistan Movement and created from his sect, the so called Creator of Pakistan who was not jailed for a single moment nor suffered or sacrificed anything, whereas the genuine and real Pioneers, sunni muslims having sterling character and noble parentage with high education like Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Allama Mashriqi, Bahadur Yarjung who with their party members had passed half of life in jail. Their partymen and some of the family members were killed . They were all sidelined through the underhand dealings between Western powers and Minority sects and generally the duffer Pakistanies hardly know anything about them. Jinnah Poonja, drinker of high quality wine and fond of pork dishes, the carbon copy of an English man was made Founder of UK, US and Jewish planned Pakistan.In the later life he was converted as Shia according to Free Masonary Plannimg; to show aloofness from his Guru Aghakhan and to give foundation coverage to both these Sects so they can do anything unhuman they wish. That is why from these and the allied factions their dogs are commonly found in civil and military everywhere supposing themselves the only custodians of this country. Also from the very beginning, PAKISTAN GAZZETS ARE ALL TIME PROOFS that Jinnah, installed on all the Key and Commanding Posts whether civil or military his selected favourite persons from all the minority sects. Sir Zafrullah, a Qadiani (the parallel sect of Aghakhanies) was the Foreign Minister in the Jinnah Regime then he was promoted to UNO as Pakistani Representative with Kashmir folio specially at his hand. Again he was elevated, through UNO to the designation of the Judge of International court yet it is the self-proclaiming proof what is the tragic plight of Kashmir for the last 66 years.
    Aghakhani Jamatkhana,Kharadar was built on THE LAND OF PORT TRUST THAT IS LEGALLY NOT USABLE BY ANY PUBLIC CIRCLE. All the main financial concerns whether Govt. or private were monopolized to Habib Bank of Shias, Timber market and Tram Company to mostly Bories, Jubilee Insurance, Empress Market to mostly Aghakhanies. These are the few apparent examples ( with the start there were few countable big concerns ) , greater may be the inside mysteries..
    It is before all that in such modern times, Billions of Rupees of this BEGGAR COUNTRY are wasted on the security of the wild processions with the roadside show-business which is absolutely reverse to Islamic Ideals and civil discipline whereby NO Muslim is permitted to hinder any public passage or daily necessities of even any non-muslim for offering even the obligatory prayers-NAMAZ. Strange to strange are the facts that the homes and earning places of the people are converted to SUB-JAILS and they are not allowed to outside workings !!! These processions of Junglies, with totally unauthentic history of false fiction stories of Karbala ( for which only and only their fore-fathers and ancestors, the first and main enemies of Ahl-e-bait from Iran and Iraq, were completely responsible),are deliberately led through the areas, (e.g. Binnori Masjid ) where there is no shia population or any concern, to add fuel to the fire. This jungle-raj is going on since the sectarian dogs of Jinnah have been sitting on high places. These Sectarian Terrorists, believing these wildness as under some heavenly command, put forward openly arms display that were used in the recent incident of Rawalpindi for the butchery and setting fire of the innocent children.
    The so called founder himself was the Greatest Sectarian !! By the time he became all in all. ( ANDHO MEIN KANA RAJA ). He was the Governor (no doubt of Britishers to serve their purposes), Party Head., Cabinet Head, Head of the constitution committee etc. As this country is the 8th wonder of the world, it is strange that the man, who is foolishly believed to be the Founder of this Islamic nation, could not make its Islamic constitution in spite of being all in all. After partition Shabbir Ahmed Usmani requested that Khoja to declare that the constitution of Pakistan would be Islamic, the Maulana was stunned to receive the Flat Reply that ‘this is NOT the time to talk such. In this reference it is remarkable to note that THE FIRST CHRISTIAN CHIEF JUSTICE OF PAKISTAN, RESPECTABLE A.R. CORNELIOUS TIME TO TIME EXPRESSED THAT “IT IS SURPRISING WHY THE GOVT. DOES’NT ENFORCE ISLAMIC LEGISLATION!!” It is also worth noting how he had stupefied the ignorant and duffer masses that whenever anyone would ask him about Islamic Constitution, he used to avoid the question by giving the airy reply that “Our constitution is already made up before 1400 years” At this the emotional fools used to enjoy that ‘What the nice reply ’ but these idiots could not understand what the NICE joke and fun it was! Similarly he used to issue ambiguous table statements ( generally prepared by western lobbies who had trained him during his self exile ) to let the fools be in useless complexity. It is quite understandable, in the light of the conspiracies against muslims that can any Aghakhani,Shia,Bori or Qadiani do anything for Muslims or Islam since they themselves have made self addition in the very first and fundamental principle KALEMA that was never done by any ummas of all the former Prophets (A.S.) and also in AZAN and have created every difference from Alam-e-Islam and have always worked as the snakes of sleeves. Their salam is ‘ Ya Ali Madad ’ and ‘ Maula Madad ’ It means H. Ali is placed in place of Allah T’ala ( Astg’ferullah ) Although it is on every reliable historical record that the period of the Caliphate of H.Ali was made quite a failure and miserable by his Hypocrite Helpers who influenced him to transfer his Caliphate to Iraq and in this way they got him trapped and behaved with him wrongly that is reflected through “ Nehj-ul-Balaga ”( The respectable book of Shias ) that he passed the rest of his life as the pessimist cursing his so called helpers and ultimately he was assassinated by one of them. (Any authentic Islamic History ) Yet they believe that ‘ Imam is superior to Prophet ’
    In Iraq they joined their hands with American lobbies to come into powers. Taliban being highly successful to establish for five years the rule of law ending all sorts of corruption in Afghanistan, Aghakhanies invited US to come to save their Religious Fraud. To create the Western planned Pakistan, all the hypocrite sects under the plot through Sultan Aghakhan joined hands with their Western Masters. Again their followers being everywhere among us , serve the purpose more than that of US-CIA knowing every weakness to utilize at their advantage. Publically they undertake the welfare and philanthropic works such as establishing schools, colleges and Universities, hospitals, charity centres appearing peaceful and cultured, behind which they carry on anything against the Muslim Societies and Nations.
    The most disastrous fraud of 19-20th century in the name of All India Muslim League was also founded by this Sultan Agakhan and its first and foremost members were Sirs,Chaudharies,Vaderas, Khans and all the extreme minority sectarian elements for their specific motives and its main office was at Lucknow the home of extreme Shias. The full planning of the Founder Dog and his Masters was to overwhelm and enslave the vast Sunni majority and to stop Islamic Constitution to take shape. The Planners and Policy makers of this League were two Britishers who were posted, one after other as Principals of Aligarh Muslim University.( most authentic History of Independence Movement by Majumdar ) All such goonda –badmash,opportunist and selfish elements and their decendents have been continuously riding over this unfortunate country and its 66 years history shows that the figure of the muslims killed in this country is the highest in the world in comparision to any muslim or nonmuslim country. Why is it so?
    Ask the new Muslims who have converted from Aghakhani (or Ismaili) Khojas as to what Sultan Aghakhan and his heirs, who make his followers to bow down before his huge portrait, have to do with Islam, Muslims or even Insan.
    He used Sir Syed, the fool with big beard and cap, as the Signboard by making that stupid so said Great Educationalist to implement the policies of his own sectarian hold and to brain wash of muslim youths. He had brought with him on one stage all the minority sects. All these Sectarian Heads drag away Billions,Trillions of dollars as Religious Tax from their idiot followers.As they charge Zaqat @ 12-50% from the Gross Income plus Kaffaras & Nazranas. According to them, for Ismailies there is no need of Namaz, Roza, Hajj, Wazoo, Taharat since they are supposed Jannati in advance. As said to them, Quraan-e-Karim is not understandable by the followers, only Imam can understand it. The followers are advised to read their sectarian book GINAN which was prepared by Sultan Aghakhan and there is SO MUCH inside.
    Also this great intriguer wanted to establish his Land-Sovereignty in the regions ( that he could NOT have been able to do in undivided India ) where his poor and ignorant countrymen as his followers are in majority (of course the Paid and Purchased Followers). With all this mysterious black background , he knew well that if Pakistan would be really Islamic country.all the falsehood of his Imamat,Sabahiat and his Mass Wealth will come to end. Every of the sectarian Heads is fully supported by the Western, UK-US and Jewish lobbies. That is why Jinnah Poonja who had nothing to do with Islam, Muslim or Insan, made the first part of Actorship as the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity and taking the advantage of communal differences, started preaching and propagating against Hindu religion and culture to effect his Masters’ “Divide and Rule” policies . Although our Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had never differentiated as Islamic and Non-Islamic countries like this and never He (P.B.U.H.) preached against any non-muslims as did Jinnah who crossed all the limits of disruption like his Guru Sultan Aghakhan. ( Ref. the lesson Pakistan Zindabad, Text-Book Class XI ) All about these research work, on the Press Record there is explicit proof that Sultan Aghakhan had got booked and leased very very vast land properties some 20-30-40-50 years before partition in the regions that were going to be shaped by UK-US as Pakistan which is so much different from what the real motivators and pioneers had demanded. So it is quite clear that the present Pakistan is the product of underhand dealings and conspiracies between UK-US and Jewish lobbies on one side and on the other, Aghakhani,Shias, Bories, Qadianies; the sects that have nothing to do with Islam or even Insan since their such dangerous plots have killed millions and millions of non-muslims and muslims alike and millions are living UNDESTINED and it was the full planning to divert the Muslim Destiny that has been done. Jinnah Poonja was assured that India must and must be divided according to the plot prepared by UK,US,JEWS and SULTAN AGHA. This is how the trained and fully backed Monkey was dancing as the most steadfast and unpurchasable since who can bid above his supporters ! International Political Game of US was to replace UK from the sub-continent by itself(US) that has been done 100% in Pakistan and 50% in India. Maulana Azad had shown red light against this before partition and all his forecasts have turned out to be true. It is hopeful that in the light of this, Pak Media (Geo TV) accepted on the night of 23rd March,2012 that the partition was the conspiracy to break the Muslim unity and strength as the muslims of India were divided FOUR fragments; East Pak,West Pak, India and Kashmir out of which the remaining Pak and Kashmir find themselves NOWHERE. The so said learned men of that time did not realize that in the near past, Kamal Ataturk of Turkey , like Jinnah was also manufactured in the Western Workshops to westernize and degenerate Turkey in the same way. To make the Aghakhani Jinnah a Hero , the “TUG OF WAR DRAMA” was set forth by his western masters like this “Masters: We will not allow you to separate and make Pakistan ; Jinnah : I will fight the case and will take it ” This was how he was made Hero and unnecessary and unwanted Advocate for the senseless masses who were trapped in the cunning plot as if receiving this country in the mode of merciful charity due to Jinnah-

  16. masadi Pakistan Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    good points

  17. RHS United States Mozilla Windows says:

    Thank you Ghazala Akbar for this excellent article on PTH.

  18. mowgli United States Internet Explorer Windows says:

    One would have hoped for a more serious investigation into the events that led up to partition as well as analysis of what subsequent developments say about the wisdom (or lack thereof) behind the partition demand. Instead we get hand-wringing over how crafty Brahmins cheated the faithful of more territory.

    Mandela moment ? Is that a new name for “sour grapes” ?

  19. Kamath. Canada Safari iPad says:

    Note to:—-
    KAMRAN says:

    “….We some University Students have found the following comment exactly relevant to the present topic………….”

    Can you , before you write this long post jot down the abstract say in 200 words or less in the future please. I don’t know how many people have the patience to read your long thesis. I certainly do not!

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