Censoring Jinnah: Express Tribune’s shameful surrender

By Yasser Latif Hamdani

This blog was originally published on Jinnah’s birthday this year on Express Tribune (ET).  It was taken down last night by the ET after a group of internet trolls “inspired by the ideology of Pakistan” started a campaign under the hashtag #ExpressTribuneLiesAgain.  None of these geniuses actually bothered to read the blog which frankly only an idiot would call anti-Jinnah or anti-Pakistan.  Apparently they were upset that it contained the following line:

 Part of it may have become apparent to him in his lifetime as he is reported to have called the creation of Pakistan the biggest blunder of his life.

I did not make up this claim.  Several historians have reported on this.  A few years ago, Alex Von Tunzelmann in her book Indian Summer wrote the following:

According to his doctor, Jinnah saw Liaquat [Ali Khan] and told him that Pakistan was ‘the biggest blunder of my life’. Further yet, he declared: ‘If now I got an opportunity I will go to Delhi and tell Jawaharlal [Nehru] to forget about the follies of the past and become friends again’

The source of this information is Dr. Illahi Baksh who was Jinnah’s physician.  His initial draft was rejected by the government of Pakistan for precisely this reason. Nasir Illahi his son wrote this as preface to the edited edition:

There was an initial version of this book which the author had submitted to the Pakistan government for review … but which regrettably does not exist any longer. The author was required to delete certain passages from the book as they were considered to be politically inappropriate and sensitive. Essentially, these included, inter alia, information … which suggested that the patient was unhappy after some difficult meetings with his close political allies who he felt were departing from the cardinal concepts of the state of Pakistan that he had begun to visualise…

It is believed that the author took the view that the Quaid’s reaction to these emerging political differences, and his possible perceptions about the lack of support for them, may have been one of the factors that contributed to the onset of the Quaid’s depressed state.”

So what is the insecurity?  I have no doubt that if Jinnah could see Pakistan today which is a theocracy that persecutes religious minorities, he would conclude that he made a mistake fighting for such a country.  Pakistan is no credit to Jinnah. It belittles the man that he was.  We should as Pakistanis learn to accept the facts.

So how did Express Tribune respond to the pressure?  They deleted the blog altogether which is tantamount to saying that the criticism by a bunch of half educated cranks and crooks, who are incapable of reading two lines and comprehending them, was actually valid.  Here is the email that Express Tribune sent to me:

Hope my email finds you well!

As you know, we have taken your blog down and completely understand why you would be infuriated about it. However, in our defense, we had been receiving a lot of calls and emails for the past two days, threatening this organisation and its employees, and you. Furthermore, pictures of our editor and publisher were making rounds on social media, with Express Tribune being one of the trending topics on Twitter.

Since we could not risk the lives of the people working here (considering our past attacks) and yours, an editorial decision was made to take down your blog.

We sincerely apologise for doing so but hope you understand, and decide to continue writing for us.

Looking forward to hearing from you.

What a shameless cop out.  If you are so scared of backlash for publishing a point of view that is backed by sources and facts, stop publishing the newspaper.   

Since yesterday I have been accused of being an Indian agent waging “5th generation warfare” but I stand by everything I write.  As responsible people we should be able to stand by what we said.  The blog is as under:

Would Jinnah regret making Pakistan if he could see what we have done to it?

Every year on Christmas Day, we in Pakistan remember Quaid-e-Azam Mahomed Ali Jinnah, who is said to have been born on that day in 1876. There are remembrances and tributes; a change of guard; TV shows dedicated to the memory of the man who is credited with (and in some circles blamed for) the creation of Pakistan. Was the creation of Pakistan right or wrong is a debate that has raged on for 7 decades now. However what is never debated or discussed is whether or not, given the state that we are today, would Mr. Jinnah even want to be remembered as the founder of Pakistan? That Mr. Jinnah would have been disappointed with many things in Pakistan today is old hat, but let us take this a step forward: would he have regretted making Pakistan if he could see what we have done in this country? As an amateur biographer and admirer of the man that he was, regardless of how one views his most notable achievement, I have pondered over this question several times. Even though the democratic government under Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, in my view, is doing all it can to steady the ship, economically, politically, culturally and socially, there were certain events this past year that has convinced me that if Mr. Jinnah of 1947 could travel through time and space and see what has become of his creation, he would most certainly give up the idea of making Pakistan. I will endeavour to explain why through this blog.

First of all the question of whether Pakistan’s creation was right or wrong is an exercise in futility because Pakistan is fait accompli, regardless of what one’s conclusions are about it. What is far more important is to understand the historical process which led to the creation of a country envisaged as a homeland for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. This historical process has its roots partly in the consciousness of upper classes as well as the rising Indian Muslim bourgeoisie and salaried classes – i.e. to use Hamza Alavi’s term “Salariat” – which feared exclusion from political power at the hands of three times more numerous Hindus in the inevitable post-British democratic India. This gave rise to Muslim nationalism and can, as an idea, be traced all the way back to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan who exhorted his followers not to join Indian National Congress, the main political vehicle of Indian nationalists. The idea of Muslim nationalism was born and brought up in Aligarh Muslim University. It was this idea that led to formation of the All India Muslim League in 1906 and the Muslim demand for separate electorates soon thereafter.

However it is equally important to note that Jinnah’s political upbringing had entirely different roots. Having been called to bar in London and from a family of merchants rather than landed elite, Jinnah escaped entirely the trends that were in vogue amongst Aligarh Muslims. A confident young lawyer, who succeeded in the legal practice at a time when the profession was dominated by British and Hindu lawyers, Jinnah had very little practical use for ideas of Muslim exceptionalism at that time. More importantly he saw himself as an Indian first second and last, with the fact that he was a Muslim being entirely incidental and largely confined to his name, which in any event he abbreviated to M A Jinnah. Amongst his closest friends and associates, there were hardly any Muslims in that early period. The few Muslims who did get entry into his circle were like him, incidental Muslims. It is well known that Jinnah followed none of the dietary prohibitions prescribed by his religion. Nevertheless after a dispute with the Aga Khan, owing possibly to his sister Mariam Bai’s marriage outside the Ismaili community, Jinnah had nominally converted to Khoja Ithna Ashari Shia Jamaat in 1901. If however he had any religious convictions he kept them absolutely private.

Jinnah’s political vehicle of choice was the Indian National Congress, which under the leadership of men like Pherozeshah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dadabhoy Naoroji and Badruddin Tyabji was a nationalist party committed to attainment of self-rule for Indians through constitutional means. When the Muslim League was founded in 1906, Jinnah not only stood apart from it but attacked its leaders as unrepresentative landed reactionaries and willing tools in British policy of divide and rule. Jinnah was also a fervent opponent of separate electorates even after he, as the Congress candidate, defeated the Muslim League candidate in 1910 on a Muslim seat.   In 1913 Jinnah also joined the Muslim League at the behest of his Congress mentors with the objective to bring the Muslim League closer to Congress. He did so, remaining a member of the Congress, on the condition that his membership would in no way impinge on his commitment to the Indian nationalist cause to which his life was dedicated. Not only was he able to woo the League away from its stance of unquestioningly loyalty to the crown but in 1916 managed to bring the League and Congress together in what is known in history as the Lucknow Pact. This December marks the 100th anniversary of that important constitutional document that made Hindu Muslim Unity possible, however briefly. For his untiring efforts with respect to bringing Hindus and Muslims together in the struggle for self-rule, Jinnah was hailed as the best ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity.

So how did such a man, whose early politics was marked with a genuine desire to see Hindus and Muslims march together and wrest from the British the reins of government of their common motherland, later turn so vociferously against the same unity? This question has vexed many a student of Indian history and the freedom struggle. Having studied Jinnah’s political career in some detail, I do not think there is any room for the idea that he underwent some kind of transformation in his political ideals. Nor do I accept entirely the supposition that he acted entirely on the Namierian impulse of seeking power, though inevitably some of that did play its part. Jinnah had come to believe very early on that constitutional advance in India depended entirely on Hindus and Muslims coming together and speaking with one voice. This necessitated the idea of a social contract between these two groups and Lucknow Pact further solidified the position that the agreement between these two entities, as the largest culturally informed religious identities, was sine qua non to Indian independence. It was on this premise that Jinnah proceeded from 1916 onwards, and whereas till 1920 Jinnah acted as a Congressman trying to bring League into the nationalist fold, his defeat at the hands of Gandhi on the issue of constitutional methods versus non-cooperation and the issue of Khilafat Movement, which Jinnah opposed, drove him out of the Congress fold. Still he persisted in his goal of achieving that ever elusive social contract between Hindus and Muslims. Increasingly though he realized that he was forced into a position of approaching the Congress as a Muslim partisan rather than an Indian Nationalist trying to build bridges.

The idea of Pakistan developed independently of the efforts of people like Jinnah who had approached the issue top down from an all India center. There had been countless schemes to divide India into Hindu majority and Muslim majority areas by Hindus, Muslims and the British (88 by KK Aziz’s count), by the time Allama Iqbal delivered his famous address in Allahabad. By the late 1930s several schemes emerged, including Rahmat Ali’s Pakistan scheme as well as what became known as “the Confederacy of India” by Mian Kifayet Ali who wrote under the name “A Punjabi”. All of these schemes had one thing in common- they all postulated that the idea of an all India center was a British creation and that India’s diversity called for not one but multiple federations which could then come together as a confederation or a supra-federation of states. An early variant of this had been the Aga Khan’s proposal for a United States of South Asia. The underlying sentiment – on part of the Muslim proponents of these schemes- was for Muslim majority areas to be autonomous (or independent) of a unitary Indian center that would be dominated by the Hindu majority in the subcontinent.

For someone who was to ride this sentiment ultimately to the creation of Pakistan, Jinnah curiously was never a Muslim nationalist ideologically. Faisal Devji for example writes that not only did Jinnah consciously not identify with the Muslims but was contemptuous of them. This does not mean of course that he was not sincere about the cause once he took it up. Jinnah was foremost a thinker of sovereignty who believed in representative politics through consensus of the people. By 1938, after being rebuffed by Congress in UP, Jinnah was looking to unite the Muslim community in the subcontinent behind his leadership to bring to fruition that long sought after social contract between the Hindus and Muslims. To do this, he needed a demand that could embody at once the impulse for autonomy in Muslim majority areas and the desire for Muslims in Hindu majority areas to escape their minority status. Pressed by the British to produce an alternative to Congress’ demand for a constituent assembly where Muslims would be a perpetual minority outvoted 3 to 1 at best, Muslim League produced the Lahore Resolution. Was this a bargaining counter? The term “bargaining counter” has been used to reduce Ayesha Jalal’s argument in her book “Sole Spokesman” and consequently much energy has been expended by historians like Venkat Dhulipala to disprove it. Her argument on the contrary was that the demand for a federation in the Muslim majority areas was made in earnest but that what kind of relations such a federation would have with the rest of India was a matter that was the subject of negotiation. Another point was that at the crunch point of that negotiation, Jinnah had climbed down from that demand and accepted something less than Muslim majority federation by accepting the Cabinet Mission Plan. However at no point did Jinnah waver from his goal, which essentially was a contract between Hindus and Muslims to achieve the independence of India. Whether the consideration of the transaction was to be a federation or a confederation or complete separation was a question of negotiation.

So what was the role of Islam in Jinnah’s politics post 1937? Jinnah was a secularist by inclination, but as much as he was an admirer of Kemal Ataturk, he recognized that unlike Kemal he had no revolutionary army at his disposal by which to resolve India’s communal problem and drive out the British. He said as much in a speech in 1938 adding that his weapons were logic and reason. More importantly he had the measure of his constituents, the Muslims. Secularism simpliciter would have little appeal to them. Here he deployed what some, like a rising young historian Cambridge Adeel Hussain, have called “Islam almost entirely ontologically emptied”, meaning essentially that meaningful structures behind Islam as a signifier were entirely rewired, a shell to produce progress and change. It was to be a vehicle for advancement of the Muslim community in a positive sense.

Jinnah the politician thus referred to Islam and its structures in that sense while simultaneously Jinnah the constitutional lawyer made sure that any reference to Islamic principles or to theological issues was skillfully omitted from any official resolutions or documents of the Muslim League. There were several attempts, most notably in 1943 at the Delhi session to commit the Muslim League to an Islamic polity based on Quran and Sunnah which Jinnah vetoed. The second thing Jinnah was extremely careful about was keeping theological arguments out of the question of who is a Muslim. To him Ahmadis were Muslims because they professed to be Muslim. Again several attempts were made to influence him both by Congress backed Majlis-e-Ahrar and people within the Muslim League but he steadfastly refused to turn Ahmadis out of the League on grounds of a theological disagreement. Indeed the one man Jinnah came to rely on in his career was Zafrullah Khan, an Ahmadi. Not only did Zafrullah Khan go on to represent Pakistan’s case before the boundary commission but he was Jinnah’s choice for a foreign minister.

The state that Jinnah had in mind was to have the same kind of relationship with Islam that modern Britain had with the Anglican Church. That the British model (of the relationship between religion and state) weighed heavily on his mind is obvious from his 11 August speech. Those who claim that secularists and liberals only refer to two lines from this speech haven’t bothered to read the whole speech which delves into Protestant and Catholic conflict in Britain before making the case for an inclusive and democratic Pakistan where Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in a religious sense, but in a political sense. It is in the light of the British model that one must examine Jinnah’s apparently contradictory statements. A Muslim majority democratic state was by its character already a Muslim country, just as Britain was an Anglican country and India was, by virtue of its Hindu majority, a Hindu country. There was no need to translate its Islamic character into a binding constitutional document. Pakistan was to be a Muslim majority mirror state of India, with minorities as equal citizens of the state. This is why Jinnah had chosen scheduled caste Hindu leader Jogendranath Mandal to represent Muslims in the interim government shortly before partition as well as to preside over the first session of Pakistan’s constituent assembly. Mandal then became Pakistan’s first law minister at Jinnah’s request. Again the implication was clear. Pakistan of Jinnah’s conception was to have no bars against Non-Muslims from seeking the important offices of the state.

Against this background it is easy enough to see why Jinnah might want to dissociate himself from the state he created. Part of it may have become apparent to him in his lifetime as he is reported to have called the creation of Pakistan the biggest blunder of his life. If Jinnah had hoped for a social contract between Hindus and Muslims, leading to perpetual peace, it was shattered with the bloodletting that the two communities engaged in at the time of partition. Contrary to his vision of a South Asia where Pakistan and India would have a relationship like the US and Canada, the two countries have engaged in a nuclear arms race. The communal issue that Jinnah sought to resolve has now metamorphosed into an international conflict.

Nor has his vision of an inclusive state, impartial to personal of an individual citizen, been realized. His colleagues in the Muslim League, themselves Muslim modernists, made the first crucial mistake by passing the Objectives Resolution. By referring directly to Quran and Sunnah, they ensured the interpreters of the future constitution would not be them, the lawyers and politicians, but the ulema. Inevitably a Pakistan based on Objectives Resolution would be a theocracy, notwithstanding the intentions of its authors. In 1971 Pakistan lost its more secular minded East Pakistani majority and with it its raison d etre as a Muslim homeland. The terminology of Muslim homeland was replaced by the terminology of an ideological Islamic state. By 1973, when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, again a modernist, had gotten Maulana Maududi to vet the new constitution, the Ulema and forces of religious orthodoxy, most of whom had been trenchant opponents of Jinnah in the 1940s, were finally ascendant in Pakistan. The embarrassing pronouncements of the Council of Islamic Ideology are a constant reminder of that.

In 1974, Pakistan’s National Assembly undermined Jinnah’s idea of the right to self-identify and inclusive citizenship by declaring Ahmadis Non-Muslims, severely limiting that community’s right to religious freedom. The logical conclusion of that was on display recently in Chakwal when an Ahmadi place of worship (for since 1984 they are not allowed by law to call their places of worship mosques) was ransacked by a crazed mob.

The situation is equally bad for Non-Muslim minorities like Hindus and Christians, whose numbers have steadily dwindled in Pakistan. Pakistan has become a badly majoritarian state that is routinely on the list of worst offenders of religious and individual freedoms. Far from being equal citizens that Jinnah imagined them to be, Non-Muslim Pakistanis are at best second class citizens barred from holding the highest offices in the land and systematically marginalized from the economic and political life of the country. Socially they face forced conversions and blasphemy charges, often to deprive them of their life, property and religious beliefs, the three things the preservation of which Jinnah termed as the foremost responsibility of a civilized government.

It is true that some Muslims, amongst those officially recognized as Muslims, have done well in Pakistan but even there the situation is far from exemplary. Jinnah had imagined that Pakistan would afford Muslims the opportunity to excel in science, economics and other fields. Yet in these fields, over all, the performance of Pakistan and especially its Muslims has been woeful. In 70 years, the world’s second largest Muslim majority state, has produced just one Nobel Prize in science and that recipient too has been forcibly declared Non-Muslim. Jinnah the politician wanted Pakistan to be a democratic state where civilians, and not the military, would rule through consensus of the people. Close to half of Pakistan’s life as a nation has been under military rule. Even in the remaining half, military has ruled from behind the scenes with the help of an unelected bureaucracy. This is not even close to the high hopes Jinnah had for this country. It is easier to create a country but harder to preserve it, or so said Jinnah’s spirit in an officially sanctioned séance in the 1950s. That sadly has turned out to be true enough in our case.

  • Afat Qiamat

    YLH ..and I am sure you must have been aware of Kaldeep’s Nayar’s article ..in ….which he writes quoting Mian Iftikhar Ud din sahib…
    “…….Jinnah remained sullen for a few days and then accused India of
    seeking to undermine Pakistan. Even so, he was deeply concerned not only
    about the migration of people but also recurrent news that several
    lakhs of people had been butchered on either side of the border.

    One day when Jinnah was in Lahore, Iftikhar-ud-din, Pakistan’s rehabilitation minister, and Mazhar Ali Khan, editor of Pakistan Times,
    flew him in a Dakota over divided Punjab. When he saw streams of people
    pouring into Pakistan or fleeing it, he struck his hand on the forehead
    and said despairingly: “What have I done?” Both Iftikhar and Mazhar
    vowed not to repeat the remark. Mazhar took his wife Tahira into
    confidence and told her what Jinnah had said, and she communicated
    Jinnah’s comment to me long after her husband’s death………..”

    Source : http://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/the-night-shastri-died-and-other-stories/281456

  • Mian

    Why we want to confuse our young generation? I belong to a family closely struggled with Mr. Jinnah during freedom movement. There was no regret or confusion about Pakistan as ‘modern Islamic Republic State’. The ‘Objective Resolution’ passed in presence of Mr. Jinnah himself is a proof that the founders of Pakistan wished to run this country within the boundaries defined in Quran. Instead of denying this fact that Pakistan was liberated as Islamic Republic, we should elaborate that ‘Islamic Rules’ defined in ‘Objective Resolution’ were meant the boundaries defined by God All Mighty in Quran; not the ones defined by mullahs of any sect or by so-called ‘liberals’ (I’m using term ‘so-called’ because people who tried to impose their version of understanding on others can not be marked as ‘liberal minded’, it’s another extreme class of our society.)

  • ali.xaidi

    Objectives Resolution was passed 7 months after Jinnah’s death. I’d suggest you not to lie as people aren’t really as stupid anymore as they were a few years back, I mean back in your days.

  • RHR

    Ali, unfortunately the stupid reaction against YLH proves that people are still pretty stupid. Many did not even bother to read the article and started their hateful diatribe

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  • Azhar Ayaz

    If outlook “India” is to be believed.

  • Learner Moses

    In the interest of academic impartiality and neutrality, let us remember that Alex von Tunzelmann wrote in her book, immediately after Jinnah’s “blunder” statement, the following words:

    «It is impossible to prove whether Jinnah actually said these words or not;…».

    On the other hand, we should pay heed to the following sober analysis by Mr. Ravi Kalia in his book “Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy,” (Routledge: London etc., 2011), page 9:

    «Biographers of Jinnah have dutifully mentioned his secular inclinations and his pull to British liberalism, but none has examined the specifics of his ideas or wondered how they would have worked in a confederation with India, or in the multi-ethnic, polychrome, polyglot Pakistan… According to a romantic view, especially popular in the liberal pseudo Westernized circles, the nation could have secured a secular, democratic, and pluralistic polity if only Jinnah’s ideas had been embraced and implemented by the misguided and selfish leaders of the young nation… This is simply speculation, especially so in the absence of any well thought-out plan by Jinnah, who admitted that he had not expected to see an independent nation emerge during his lifetime. His collapsing lungs in the last years of his life could not have allowed him to focus on such details. He never set out a clear exposition of his views. Typical of the barrister that he was, he would let his juniors prepare briefs that he would deliver in the Gothic Bombay High Court with rhetorical flourish and the force of his personality, according to the recollections of his contemporary jurist friend, M. C. Chagla. His treatment of crucial issues surrounding the foundation of the new nation of Pakistan was similarly detached.»

  • Learner Moses

    In the interest of academic impartiality and neutrality, let us remember that Alex von Tunzelmann wrote in her book, immediately after Jinnah’s “blunder” statement, the following words:

    «It is impossible to prove whether Jinnah actually said these words or not;…».
    On the other hand, we should pay heed to the following sober analysis by Mr. Ravi Kalia in his book “Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy,” (Routledge: London etc., 2011), page 9:

    «Biographers of Jinnah have dutifully mentioned his secular inclinations and his pull to British liberalism, but none has examined the specifics of his ideas or wondered how they would have worked in a confederation with India, or in the multi-ethnic, polychrome, polyglot Pakistan… According to a romantic view, especially popular in the liberal pseudo Westernized circles, the nation could have secured a secular, democratic, and pluralistic polity if only Jinnah’s ideas had been embraced and implemented by the misguided and selfish leaders of the young nation… This is simply speculation, especially so in the absence of any well thought-out plan by Jinnah, who admitted that he had not expected to see an independent nation emerge during his lifetime. His collapsing lungs in the last years of his life could not have allowed him to focus on such details. He never set out a clear exposition of his views. Typical of the barrister that he was, he would let his juniors prepare briefs that he would deliver in the Gothic Bombay High Court with rhetorical flourish and the force of his personality, according to the recollections of his contemporary jurist friend, M. C. Chagla. His treatment of crucial issues surrounding the foundation of the new nation of Pakistan was similarly detached.»

  • Learner Moses

    From L. Binder, “Religion and Politics in Pakistan,” University of California Press, 1961, page 22:

    «Classical [Islamic juridical] theory can give no sanction to either the territorial or personal bases of Pakistan, consequently, Islamic theology can give no sanction at all to whatever system of constitutional law may be devised. At best, it is only the ‘ulama’——as in the aftermath of the Abbasid Caliphate——who can give unity, continuity, and divine guidance to that part of the Islamic community which resides in Pakistan. All that is required of the government is that it recognize the institution and function of the ‘ulama’.»

    And from Farzana Shaikh, “Making Sense of Pakistan,” Columbia University Press (New York), 2009, pages 83-84:

    «In a speech to the Sind Bar Association in Karachi on 25 January 1948, he even seemed ready to abandon his earlier stance, which had called for religion to be kept out of politics, and denouncing as ‘mischief’ attempts to ignore ‘Shari‘at Law’ as the basis of Pakistan’s constitution… The country’s dominant, governing elite in these early years was drawn mainly from the urban professional classes of north-central India. Though they represented a formidable presence in Pakistan, their lack of local roots meant that few could do without some form of Islamic legitimation. But such legitimacy came at a price, which involved compromising the secular objectives with which these classes were closely associated…. The religious lobby was soon seduced when Jinnah, having failed to obtain constitutional concessions from Congress, promised an Islamic government to mobilize the hitherto tepid support of the Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal… Islamist politicians, who were closely allied to the Jamaat-i-Islami, […] acted as the main catalyst to ensure that Islamic concerns would be taken into account by law makers entrusted with drafting the 1956 Constitution.12 These efforts, which were also instrumental in persuading the ulama to join the fray in support of an Islamic constitution, were finally rewarded with the adoption of the 1949 Objectives Resolution.»

  • Harun

    If secular Jinnah had read The Book, he wouldn’t have demanded a separate country for Muslims.

  • K. H. Zia

    It is not true that Mian Iftikhar was a member of Pakistan’s first cabinet. Starting his political life as a communist he later joined the Congress Party and remained in it until just before Partition when he switched to the Muslim League. The reputation he enjoyed was not good at all. It is inconceivable and totally out of character that Jinnah would say such a thing to him or Mr. Mazhar. The latter was and remained a member of the Pakistan Communist Party. There is absolutely no record of Jinnah taking a plane ride with the duo let aside saying what is alleged to have said to them. It is all made up and has no veracity.

    The speculation about Jinnah’s wishes for the constitution of Pakistan is unnecessary when the man is on record having made his views crystal clear. Here are two examples and he never changed this theme:

    At the Delhi session of the Muslim League in April 1943 declared
    in his presidential speech ‘The Constitution of Pakistan can only be framed by the millat and the people. Prepare yourselves and see that you frame a Constitution which is to your heart’s desire. There is a lot of misunderstanding. A lot of mischief is created. Is it going to be an Islamic Government? Is it not begging the question? Is it not a question of passing a vote of censure on yourself? The Constitution and Government will be what the people will decide. The only question is that of the minorities’ (Foundation of Pakistan’: All-India Muslim League Documents, 1906 – 1947, by Saiyid Sharifuddin Pirzada, vol. II, p. 425).

    At a press conference in Delhi on 14th July 1947, he told a correspondent, ‘When you talk of democracy, I am afraid you have not studied Islam. We learnt democracy thirteen hundred years ago’. About the constitution of Pakistan he said in 1948, ‘I am sure it will be a democratic type, embodying the essential principles of Islam —– In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic state to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims, Hindus, Christians and Parsis, but all are Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan’ (Glimpses of the Quaid-e-Azam, vol. II, p. 463).

    Much of confusion that his arisen is because many writers mix up a constitution based on Democratic principles in the light of Islam and one that aims to create a theocratic state run by mullahs imposing their will regardless of what the people desired. As in everything he did in his, he is very clear. The confusion lies only in our minds.

    As for Jinnah’s position until 1940 it evolved with time and circumstances but the basic aim always remained the same — ensuring a secure future for the Muslims of India. The demand for a separate state/states composed of Muslim majority areas was only made when Hindus did not agree to include constitutional guarantees as existed for minorities in Canada and Egypt at the time.

    All the rest is knit picking and speculation,

    K, Hussan Zia.

  • Arun

    “….Hindus did not agree to include constitutional guarantees as existed for minorities in Canada and Egypt…”


  • K. H. Zia

    Having first accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan which was the last hope of a united India, the Congress Party went back on it This is how Nehru broke the deal after taking over as its president told a public meeting on 4th July, 1946 ‘We chose the
    best part of it (Mission Plan) and rejected the worthless ones’.
    Addressing the All-India Congress Committee on 7th July he declared,
    ‘So far as I can see, it is not a question of our accepting any plan, long
    or short. It is only a question of our agreeing to go into the constituent
    assembly. That is all, and nothing more than that’. Three days later he
    told a press conference, ‘We agreed to go into the constituent assembly,
    which was to be a Sovereign body —- we have agreed to nothing else —-. What
    we do there, we are entirely and absolutely free to determine. We have not
    committed ourselves to any single matter to anybody’ (Transfer of Power, VIII, pp. 25-7).

    In effect it would have meant a permanent overwhelming Hindu majority in the constituent assembly for all times to come. It left no option for the Muslim League except to ask for a division of the country.

  • Kamath

    Can anybody give me the link to Tribune’s article, please? I haven’t read it yet!

  • James Bond
  • Arun

    Too long for a discussion here, you should read the material here:

    Short version – no, the Cabinet Mission Plan contained in the compulsory grouping of provinces a Pakistan and not a united India, and Congress was correct in rejecting it.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Actually that is equally nonsense. Cabinet Mission Plan was a three tier federation in which there were compulsory groupings. But it rejected Pakistan outright.
    You can go on in circles but neither you nor your sister can change the facts of history.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Not true. There is nothing in Jinnah papers to this effect.

  • AA_Southpaw

    This doesn’t prove it didn’t happen.

    All it proves is “There is nothing in Jinnah papers to this effect.”

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    There is no evidence period. So those who claim this need to prove it. I have responded to this lie in detail. See first article.

  • Arun

    Just do a search in your favorite search engine of “Cabinet mission plan contained the seeds of Pakistan”.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Unlike you I don’t depend on Google. The preamble of the cabinet mission plan rejected separate sovereign Pakistan outright. Read history for what it is. Even Maulana Azad has mentioned this in his book India wins freedom.

  • Arun

    First of all, with your experience in Pakistan, you should know that there is a difference between a statement of intent of any scheme, and the actual, practical effect of that scheme.

    Secondly, you should ponder which “Union” has had more than one constitution-writing body.

  • Arun

    Let’s say the Cabinet Mission Plan went through. What, in your opinion, would have prevented group B or C states or both from passing the equivalent of the Objectives Resolution that the Pakistan constituent assembly passed in 1949, and that you have termed the first dagger in the heart of Pakistan?

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Large minorities of 40 percent Non Muslims would have prevented the objectives resolution… not to mention that Jinnah would not have burned himself out and would still be alive to check such elements.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Actually for your information many states in the US have their own state constitutions.

  • Arun

    Yes, but they didn’t write their own constitutions while writing the US constitution. They had constitutions well before that.

  • Arun

    The 1949 Pakistan constituent assembly was made up of a pre-Independence mix of representatives, no?

  • Arun

    As far as I can quickly check, the Constituent Assemblies worked with a simple majority rule, not needing a super-majority. And since a province could not withdraw from its grouping, a threat to walk-out would not work. So “forty percent minorities” would have no clout.

    India alone took almost 3 years, till 1950, to produce its Constitution, with fundamental disagreements about any principles very few in number; and the first Pakistan constituent assembly never completed its work. To suggest that the group B & C constituent assemblies would have produced faster results, would have come to an agreement even on joint or separate electorates, and Jinnah would have lived that long, etc., are just laughable.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Ha. There were only 13 states when US was founded. What about California Texas New Mexico? Google hee kar lo bhai.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Not 45-49 percent.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    What is laughable is your assertion that with 45 percent to 49 percent minority populations there wouldn’t be even 5 to 10 percent Muslims who would have sided with them on issues such as that. This shows the paucity of your intellect more than any other thing.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Also B and C constituent assemblies were to draft group constitutions of B and C not the constitution of India. The constitution of India was to be settled by the constituent assembly of India where Hindus still had 3 to 1 majority. Check what you are arguing before making a fool of yourself.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    PS the more I read your ignorant comments the more I realize that you haven’t actually read the cabinet mission plan. Provinces could walk out. The question was when. The mission and the League said after the first elections. The Congress said it could choose not to join ab initio. This was the point on which the plan fell.

  • Arun

    Oh, supposedly the presense of minorities would stiffen Muslim spines? Maybe if there were joint electorates, and Muslim politicians knew that they could get minority votes, it would have worked.

  • Arun

    The other states didn’t amend the US Constitution, which was already written. They voted to join or not join.

  • Arun

    The closest analog India could have come to the US experience if all the provinces worked in a **single** constituent assembly, and having written the Constitution, individually ratified it or not.

  • Arun

    Anyway, you tend to confirm what many non-Muslims are beginning to suspect – Muslims’ political principles change based on whether they are in a tiny minority, a slight majority or an overwhelming majority.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Just goes to show that you haven’t read the Cabinet Mission Plan.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Refer to the comment above.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    Actually … joint electorates were always on the cards. Pakistan adopted them shortly after partition and with the exception of 1985, 1988, 1990, 1993 and 1997 elections, Pakistan has followed the joint electorate system.
    Secondly it would have worked whether or not joint electorates would have been in play. It is extraordinary to think that all 51-55 percent Muslim legislators would have voted one way in Punjab. So you are wrong again.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    This confirms your inherently anti-Muslim bias. It is because of people like you that Muslims chose to make Pakistan in the first place. But for what it is worth, an overwhelming Muslim majority always wishes to have some role of Islam in law making and constitution making (just as a Hindu majority will always impose beef bans and other such things)… this is why a slight majority would have worked better. The issue here is not the inherent nature of Muslim or Hindu societies. The issue here is whether or not Cabinet Mission Plan would have worked and delivered a federal India. All evidence shows that it would have worked and would have worked quite well. All neutral observers (those who don’t take either the Indian nationalist or Muslim nationalist points of view) agree that it would have been a win win for both points of view and would have allowed accommodation between the two points of view …. the problem was and always has been the intolerance of people like you to even conceding a little bit to those who disagree with you. That was the reason behind Nehru sabotaging the plan and that was the reason India had to be partitioned for better or for worse.

  • Arun

    No, your words tend to prove that being anti-Muslim is not a bias, it is rational. Because what you wrote with respect to the Objectives Resolution boils down to this: Muslims behave more secularist when there are substantial minorities, and not otherwise. I.e., with Muslims, secularism is not a principle that holds always, but only in the presence of minorities. So, e.g., Europe would not want there to ever be a substantial Muslim population there, because today’s secularist Muslim will be tomorrow’s Islamist.

  • Yasser Latif Hamdani

    I take that as a concession that you can’t defend your position vis a vis Cabinet Mission Plan.

    Now I am not interested in arguing axiomatic truths. It is true that Muslims where ever they are in an overwhelming majority would at this time want to see a role of religion in state building… Iran and even Malaysia are easy examples to see. Turkey is moving in that direction despite Ataturk. Pakistan moved in that direction despite Jinnah. Bangladesh is facing the same dilemma … read yesterday’s NYTimes.

    The objective need for secularism as the absolute good will only arise after much trial and tribulation in wholly Muslim societies which are torn apart by sectarian conflict just like Europe did. The debate here was whether or not that would have been the case in the event cabinet mission plan was accepted- the numbers say that it wouldn’t because Muslims are not a monolith ..and a minority amongst Muslims would have collaborated with Non Muslims to thwart theocracy.

    The above is true of all communities btw most of all of Hindus. Despite Ambedkar despite Nehru India is marching towards Hindu Rashtra. And you are a glowing example of a parochial non-secular mind that India produces.

  • Raghav

    Oh, this site is still alive? Amazing. Yeah, it’s me, I don’t remember which nick I used here. Anyway, have a great day everyone. RHR bhai, you’ve become very pudgy…do some exercise 🙂

  • Majumdar

    Ranger bhai,

    Nice to see you. Pls come back here and on bukbuk.


  • Raghav

    Hi Majumdar bhai, how are you? Have to pass on the offer. I have moved on from those days 🙂